Power
Generation

Have questions around power generation? Start here for simple answers and dive deeper for additional insights.

什么是发电?

Power generation is complicated but let’s try to keep it simple.

Power generation is a term used to describe electricity production using different types of technology—some, such as steam boilers, are more than a hundred years old and others, such as wind turbines, are newer. Actually, steam boilers and windmills are a lot older. They were initially invented to move machinery and crush grain and they still do but now they’re mostly used to make electricity.

最多power generating equipment通过在交流发电机中旋转机制来产生电力。如何制作机制旋转取决于使用了哪种技术。

电力是如何产生的?

发电厂和发电机中有很多电源。我们说,旋转运动被传输到交流发电机,交流发电机将运动转换为电力。这是怎么发生的?

交流发电机非常像电动机。电动机使用电力旋转转子。在交流发电机中,这是相反的 - 而不是使用电力创造运动,而是交流发动机使用运动来产生电力。实际上,许多电动机可以用作临时交流发电机。

交流发电机are made up of two parts: a stator and a rotor. The rotor spins inside the alternator and is designed to create a magnetic field. The stator is essentially a box made up of many copper windings wrapped around a hollow iron core. When the rotor spins inside the stator, its magnetic field rotates too, and that rotation create an electrical current inside the stator’s windings. That electrical current is collected and sent to the power grid.

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The next generation of power.

可靠的工作,家庭和生活。从医院和数据中心到钻井和采矿操作,都需要在任何地方找到您的用例。

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赋予您的安心。

有了康明斯的家十年在线体育真人娱乐品牌用发电机或便携式发电机,您的家人不会陷入黑暗中。您的房屋或便携式发电机在停电期间悄悄地自动提供电源。

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发电机如何工作?

发电机是围绕往复式发动机和交流发电机建造的小型,独立的发电厂。发动机和交流发电机通常组合成单个外壳,该外壳可以像拖拉机拖车一样大,或者与手提箱一样小,具体取决于需要多少电力。具有适合不同燃料的发动机的发电机可用 - 柴油,汽油,生物燃料,天然气等。

较大的发电机用于多种applications and industries。它们可以用作主要力量或待机力。例如,部署在没有可靠电网的地区,例如,通常依靠基本发电机来满足其所有电力需求。在任何时间都无法接受的建筑物中,安装备用发电机以在停电时提供电力。Data centersand hospitals are examples of buildings that require standby generators.

Types of power plants

涉及不同技术的发电厂有许多类型:往复式发动机(有时称为内燃机),蒸汽涡轮机,燃气轮机,水力发电涡轮机,风力涡轮机,地热,核等。

什么是水力发电厂和风电场?

水力发电厂和风电场是技术中的表亲,因为它们没有使用燃料(仅风和水流)发电。

他们还使用外部旋转涡轮叶片在交流发电机的旋转轴上施加扭矩。例如,胡佛大坝包含一个众所周知的水力发电厂,该电厂通过利用水流到大坝时释放的势能来创造大量电力。

对于风力涡轮机,每个塔都有一组涡轮刀片和交流发电机,可提取风能并将其转换为电。

What are solar power plants?

Solar electricity is made in photovoltaic panels that use sunlight to activate the silicon cells that they contain. When photons from the sun hit the silicon cells, they knock out electrons from the atoms present in the silicon. The cells are designed in such a way that electrons can only travel in one direction. So, when the cell’s electron collector is connected to an electrical load, electrons line up to travel out of the cell and into the electrical load. In other words, an electrical current is generated.

Solar energy technology has expanded to concentrated solar plants with steam turbines. In some configurations, mirrors are set around a tower and the reflection is aimed at a receptor at the top of the tower. Think of it as using a magnifying glass to concentrate the sun’s rays to start a fire. The top of the tower has a steam boiler from which hot steam is piped down to a ground-level steam turbine.

什么是地热电厂?

地热发电厂的管道深入地球,在那里,从附近的岩浆发出的热量加热了水。水变成蒸汽,蒸汽涡轮机和交流发电机将蒸汽用于发电。地热活动将水转向蒸汽的一个例子是怀俄明州黄石国家公园的许多热门间歇泉。

What are gas-fired power plants?

在gas-fired power plants that rely on a gas turbine, the process goes like this:

  1. 空气被绘制到压缩的压缩机中。
  2. 压缩空气被带到燃烧器中,并将其与燃料混合,并点燃空气燃料混合物。
  3. 燃烧产生的加压气体导致涡轮叶片旋转。
  4. 与往复发动机一样,旋转运动也会传输到将其转换为电力的交流发电机。

Jet engines operate in a very similar way, the difference being that the torque spins fan blades and propels the jet.

city landscape at dusk

Energy Sources: All you need to know

有几种形式的能量?什么是主要能源?简单地回答有关能量的常见问题。

能源

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What are diesel-fired power plants?

Diesel-fired发电厂相对较小的我n power generation capacity compared to other power plants. These power plants often use the reciprocating engines for power generation. These reciprocating engines are just like a car’s engine:

  • 注入燃料时,空气进入压缩机。
  • A piston rises and lowers as the air and fuel mixture combusts.
  • The piston is connected to a crank shaft that produces a spinning motion.
  • 旋转运动被转移到交流发电机上,该发电机将运动转换为电流。

Reciprocating engine-based power plants can actually burn a variety of fuels, including natural gas, heavy oil and more.

What are coal-fired power plants?

在coal-fired power plants the process goes like this:

  • A fuel source is fired-up to heat water in a boiler.
  • The heated water in the boiler turns to steam.
  • 蒸汽会导致蒸汽涡轮机的叶片转动
  • 转弯运动被转移到交流发电机,这会产生电力。

核电站的过程是相同的,但是由于铀原子的裂变而不是燃料的燃烧,水煮沸了。

annual_pg_capacity_additions_graph.JPG

核电厂及其如何工作?

核电厂, the process is the same with steam turbines, but water is boiled by the heat coming from the fission of uranium atoms, rather than the combustion of fuel.

Nuclear power plants house one or more reactors where nuclear fission takes place. Large uranium atoms are split apart to form smaller atoms, releasing a tremendous amount of energy in the process. The uranium is brought to the reactor in the form of uranium oxide pellets stacked together in sealed metal tubes called fuel rods. The fuel rods are inserted into a large vessel filled with water and pressurized—the reactor vessel. Once the nuclear fission is initiated, the fuel rods heat the water present in the reactor vessel, creating steam. This steam then goes on to spin a steam turbine and electric alternator set, creating electricity.

No fossil fuel is involved at any point in the process, so nuclear power plants don’t generate any carbon emissions. What they do generate however is lots of highly radioactive spent fuel rods, which nobody really knows what to do with.

There are about 94 nuclear reactors installed at 57 power plants in the United States and about 450 reactors worldwide, as of 2021.

联合循环发电厂

Steam turbines can piggy-back on gas turbines to make a “combined-cycle” plant that uses the waste heat from the gas turbine to make steam. The gas turbine’s exhaust heat now produces additional electricity. This is why combined-cycle power plants have better efficiency and higher output than simple-cycle power plants.

电塔顶

发电:最终指南

您想了解的有关电力的一切,简化。如何制造电力,可再生电力,AC与DC等。

发电

Benefits of different power generation technologies

Each type of power plant and power generation technology comes with advantages and drawbacks.

Nuclear power plants produce lots of electricity with very little fuel and almost no emissions, but nuclear waste is a major problem that has yet to be resolved.

Gas turbines generate less emissions and are more efficient than most steam turbine-based power plants but tend to be expensive to maintain. They also run best on natural gas, which is not available everywhere.

Reciprocating engines have great flexibility: they have a quick-start and quick-stop ability, and they can run on a variety of fuels, are very efficient, and relatively low cost to build and maintain.

风力涡轮机和太阳能电池板不产生直接排放,不需要燃料,但是它们的输出是可变的,有时是不可预测的 - 在无风的一天中,风电场不会产生很多电力。

As the global desire for cleaner power generation and reduced emissions for future generations increases, the shift to clean, renewable energy continues to grow. With so many wind and solar farms on the power grid, it is important to have enough flexible power plants that can start and stop quickly to compensate for the variability of wind and solar power. Gas turbines and reciprocating engines are well suited for this and a popular option among power companies.

发电的能源

All power generation systems and power plants work by converting energy that is available in one form or another into electricity.

太阳能电池板和风电场转换了其环境中的能量 - 纵火和风能。同样,水力发电植物提取了堵墙的水的势能,或河流中存在的动能以发电。风,阳光和水的能量被认为是可再生的,因为它的来源不断补充,即使其可用性取决于天气条件。

其他发电技术需要燃料作为能源。几乎所有可以燃烧的东西都被用作发电的燃料。有一些电厂在市政垃圾,旧轮胎,下水道气,玉米壳,工业废物等上运行。这是,大多数不可再生的电力来自化石燃料,化石燃料,包括煤炭,天然气和石油蒸馏器在内作为柴油。

生物燃料是燃料越来越重要的类别,因为它们是碳中性的。这意味着,当它们燃烧时,释放的碳并非来自化石来源。生物燃料是由有机材料制成的,例如能源作物,农业副产品,甚至使用了油炸油。12BET官方手机网站生物燃料具有固体,液体和气态形式,导致发电应用中的各种用途。例如,生物柴油是一种广泛使用的液体生物燃料类型。

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